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Reverse osmosis is a membrane separation technology that uses pressure as the driving force by means of the function of selective permeable (semi-permeable) membranes. When the pressure applied in the system is greater than the osmotic pressure of the aqueous solution, water molecules continuously penetrate the membrane. It flows into the central pipe through the water production channel, and then flows out of impurities in the water at one end, such as ions, organic matter, bacteria, viruses, etc., which are trapped on the inlet side of the membrane, and then flow out at the outlet end of the concentrated water to achieve the purpose of separation and purification.
Reverse osmosis is the most precise membrane liquid separation technology. The operating pressure is applied on the water (concentrated solution) side to overcome the natural osmotic pressure. When the operating pressure higher than the natural osmotic pressure is higher than the natural osmotic pressure, water molecules naturally permeate when added to the concentrated solution side. The flow direction will be reversed, and the water molecules in the influent (concentrated solution) will pass through the reverse osmosis membrane and become the purified water on the dilute solution side; the reverse osmosis equipment can block all soluble salts and organics with a molecular weight greater than 100, but water is allowed Molecular permeation, reverse osmosis composite membrane desalination rate is generally greater than 98%, they are widely used in industrial pure water and electronic ultrapure water preparation, drinking pure water production, boiler water supply and other processes, the use of reverse osmosis equipment before ion exchange can greatly The discharge of water and waste water for lowering operation.
Reverse osmosis is the membrane separation technology with the highest filtration accuracy. The filtration accuracy reaches 0.0001um. All the substances in the tap water are filtered, without minerals and trace elements, this water is directly drinkable. Impurities in the water such as soluble solids, organic matter, colloidal substances and bacteria are intercepted by the reverse osmosis membrane, concentrated in the interception liquid and removed. One-stage reverse osmosis can remove more than 97% of the dissolved solids in the raw water.
The working principle of reverse osmosis membrane is to separate pure water and solution containing solute with a semi-permeable membrane that can only pass through water. At this time, the water on the pure water side spontaneously permeates through the semi-permeable membrane and enters the solution side. When the water level on the side rises, this phenomenon is penetration. When the liquid level rises to a certain height, the pressure on both sides of the membrane reaches equilibrium, and the liquid level on the solution side no longer rises. At this time, there is a pressure difference on both sides of the membrane, which is called osmotic pressure. If a pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied to the solution side, the water molecules in the solution will be squeezed to the pure water side. This process is just the opposite of osmosis, which is called reverse osmosis. We can see from the process of reverse osmosis that due to pressure, water molecules in the solution enter the pure water, the amount of pure water increases, and the solution itself is concentrated. The principle of reverse osmosis desalination is to apply a pressure greater than the natural osmotic pressure, so that the permeation proceeds in the opposite direction, and the water molecules in the raw water are pressed to the other side of the membrane to achieve the purpose of removing the salt in the water. This is the principle of reverse osmosis membrane desalination.
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